The dominant role in determining the fate of people and nations belonged to Tengri, but natural forces yielded to Yer-Sub. Sometimes on Tengri's command, Yer-Sub punished people for their sins. But she was generally considered a benevolent Goddess. To appease Yer-Sub, sacrifices were made every spring in preparation for the cattle-breeding season and before planting crops. Sacrifices were also conducted in the autumn, after the completion of the harvest. During the times of the Khaganates, sacrifices to Yer-Sub had a nation-wide character. They were conducted near rivers and on the banks of lakes. A reddish horse was sacrificed with appeals for the fertility of cattle and crops, and for general well being. With the disintegration of the ancient Turkic states, the rituals to Yer-Sub began to take on distinct local forms. As in ancient times, they were conducted in the upper rivulets and on the shores of lakes. White rams were sacrificed and hung on a tree, under which a prayer was conducted. After the ritual, participants feasted and exchanged gifts.
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