Goddess Toyotama Hime  

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TOYOTAMA-HIME is the Japanese Goddess of dragons and the sea. She is the daughter of the sea King Ryujin. She lived under the sea until a young hunter named Hikohohodemi-no-Mikoto came to the bottom of the sea, looking for a fishing hook that belonged to his brother. He usually hunted in the mountains, and his brother Honosusori-no-Mikoto fished, but they had decided to exchange equipment for a day. Hikohohodemi-no-Mikoto lost his brother's best fishing hook and went under the sea to find it. Toyotama-hime saw him and asked her father to help him in his quest. He found the hook, and also found love with Toyotama-hime and they were married.

After a few years, Hikohohodemi-no-Mikoto began to long for the world above the sea. He convinced Toyotama-hime to go with him. She was pregnant with his child and consented, so long as he would promise not to watch when she gave birth. He agreed and they returned to the surface. Hikohohodemi-no-Mikoto built a house for them to live in, and it was not long until the time of the birth came. At first, he waited patiently outside, but his curiosity got the better of him, and he peeked inside. He saw a huge black dragon holding a tiny baby. Toyotama-hime, who had changed into her alternate form of the dragon to give birth, was ashamed that her husband had seen her in that form, and she left him and the baby and returned to the sea. She sent her younger sister, Tamayori, to help raise the child. The baby, Hikonagisa-Takeugaya-Fukiaezu-no-Mikoto, grew up to marry his aunt Tamayori, and their son, Kamuyamato-lwarebiko-no-Mikoto, eventually became known as Jimmu-Tenno, the first emperor of Japan.

Toyotama-hime's name means "luminous jewel" and she is also known as OTOHIME or the DRAGON PRINCESS OF THE SEA.

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Gods Of The Harvest  

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When Lammastide rolls around, the fields are full and fertile. Crops are abundant, and the late summer harvest is ripe for the picking. This is the time when the first grains are threshed, apples are plump in the trees, and gardens are overflowing with summer bounty. In nearly every ancient culture, this was a time of celebration of the agricultural significance of the season. Because of this, it was also a time when many gods and goddesses were honored. These are some of the many deities who are connected with this earliest harvest holiday.

ADONIS ( Assyrian ): Adonis is a complicated god who touched many cultures. Although he's often portrayed as Greek, his origins are in early Assyrian religion. Adonis was a god of the dying summer vegetation. In many stories, he dies and is later reborn, much like Attis and Tammuz.

ATTIS ( Phrygean ): This lover of Cybele went mad and castrated himself, but still managed to get turned into a pine tree at the moment of his death. In some stories, Attis was in love with a Naiad, and jealous Cybele killed a tree (and subsequently the Naiad who dwelled within it), causing Attis to castrate himself in despair. Regardless, his stories often deal with the theme of rebirth and regeneration.

CERES ( Roman ): Ever wonder why crunched-up grain is called cereal? It's named for Ceres, the Roman goddess of the harvest and grain. Not only that, she was the one who taught lowly mankind how to preserve and prepare corn and grain once it was ready for threshing. In many areas, she was a mother-type goddess who was responsible for agricultural fertility.

DAGON ( Semitic ): Worshipped by an early Semitic tribe called the Amorites, Dagon was a god of fertility and agriculture. He's also mentioned as a father-deity type in early Sumerian texts and sometimes appears as a fish god. Dagon is credited with giving the Amorites the knowledge to build the plough.

DEMETER ( Greek ): The Greek equivalent of Ceres, Demeter is often linked to the changing of the seasons. She is often connected to the image of the Dark Mother in late fall and early winter. When her daughter Persephone was abducted by Hades, Demeter's grief caused the earth to die for six months, until Persephone's return.

LUGH ( Celtic ): Lugh was known as a god of both skill and the distribution of talent. He is sometimes associated with midsummer because of his role as a harvest god, and during the summer solstice the crops are flourishing, waiting to be plucked from the ground at Lughnasadh.

MERCURY ( Roman ): Fleet of foot, Mercury was a messenger of the gods. In particular, he was a god of commerce and is associated with the grain trade. In late summer and early fall, he ran from place to place to let everyone know it was time to bring in the harvest. In Gaul, he was considered a god not only of agricultural abundance but also of commercial success.

NEPER ( Egyptian ): This androgynous grain deity became popular in Egypt during times of starvation. He later was seen as an aspect of Osiris, and part of the cycle of life, death and rebirth.

PARVATI ( Hindu ): Parvati was a consort of the god Shiva, and although she does not appear in Vedic literature, she is celebrated today as a goddess of the harvest and protector of women in the annual Gauri Festival.

POMONA ( Roman ): This apple goddess is the keeper of orchards and fruit trees. Unlike many other agricultural deities, Pomona is not associated with the harvest itself, but with the flourishing of fruit trees. She is usually portrayed bearing a cornucopia or a tray of blossoming fruit.

TAMMUZ ( Sumerian ): This Sumerian god of vegetation and crops is often associated with the cycle of life, death, and rebirth.

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